We have seen a naïve way to perform denoising on images by a simple convolution with Gaussian kernels. In this post I would like to compare that simple method with a more elaborate one: *wavelet thresholding*. The basic philosophy is based upon the local knowledge that wavelet coefficients offer us: Intuitively, small wavelet coefficients are dominated by noise, while wavelet coefficients with a large absolute value carry more signal information than noise. Being that the case, it is reasonable to obtain a fast denoising of a given image if we perform two basic operations:

- Eliminate in the wavelet representation those elements with small coefficients, and
- Decrease the impact of elements with large coefficients.

In mathematical terms, all we are doing is *thresholding* the absolute value of wavelet coefficients by an appropriate function. For example, if we chose to eliminate all coefficients with absolute value less than a given threshold \( \theta \), and keep the rest of the coefficients untouched, we end up with the thresholding function \( \tau_\theta \colon \mathbb{R}^+ \to \mathbb{R} \) given by:

We refer to this function as a *hard thresholding*. But we might want to decrease the impact of the elements with large coefficients in absolute value—this is what we refer as *soft thresholding*. A common way to perform this thresholding is by simple imposition of continuity of the function; e.g.:

Other thresholding functions are of course possible, and the reader is encouraged to come up with different examples, and experiment with them.

The wavelet module `PyWavelet`

is easily embedded in `sage`

, and allows us to perform very fast and elegant denoising codes. The following session shows an example: We load the image of Lena as an array of size \( 512 \times 512 \) containing values between `0`

and `255`

. We contaminate the image with white noise \( (\sigma=16.0) \) and perform denoising with this technique. Since \( 512 = 2^9, \) we require all nine levels of the Haar wavelet coefficients of the image.

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from numpy import *

import scipy

import pywt

image = scipy.misc.lena().astype(float32)

noiseSigma = 16.0

image += random.normal(0, noiseSigma, size=image.shape)

wavelet = pywt.Wavelet('haar')

levels = Integer( floor( log2(image.shape[0]) ) )

WaveletCoeffs = pywt.wavedec2( image, wavelet, level=levels)

The object `WaveletCoeffs`

is a tuple with ten entries: the first one is the approximation at the highest level: 9; the second entry is a 3-tuple containing the three different details (horizontal, vertical and diagonal) at the same level. Each consecutive entry is a 3-tuple containing the three different details at lower levels \( (n=8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1) \)

The module `pywt`

has several threshold functions implemented. Let us use the soft thresholding indicated above, with a made-up threshold \( \theta = \sigma \sqrt{2 \log_2(\texttt{image.size})}. \)

In order to apply this threshold to each single wavelet coefficient, we will make use of the powerful tools of functional programming from `sage`

. We need:

- A thresholding function. We use the ones provided by the
`pywt`

package:`pywt.thresholding.soft`

, and in particular its lambda expression:

`Python`

’s built-in function`map(func, seq1, seq2, ...)`

- The tuple of objects over which we need to apply the thresholding: In this case, the set of wavelet coefficients
`WaveletCoeffs`

computed above.

Once computed the new coefficients, we use `pywt.waverec2`

to obtain the corresponding reconstruction:

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threshold = noiseSigma*sqrt(2*log2(image.size))

NewWaveletCoeffs = map (lambda x: pywt.thresholding.soft(x,threshold), WaveletCoeffs)

NewImage = pywt.waverec2( NewWaveletCoeffs, wavelet)

original + noise | denoised (`haar`) |

Denoising is good, but the overall visual quality of the resulting image is very poor: there are many artifacts, due mainly to the blocky nature of the Haar wavelet. Also, the choice of threshold is artificial: it has a priori no relationship with the structure of the image. Let’s put a temporary solution to this problem by using a smoother wavelet, while keeping the same threshold. To avoid excessive typing, we will wrap the code above into a neat function with variables being the image to be treated, the standard deviation of the noise added, and the name of the wavelet employed:

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def denoise(data,wavelet,noiseSigma):

levels = Integer(floor(log2(data.shape[0])))

WC = pywt.wavedec2(data,wavelet,level=levels)

threshold=noiseSigma*sqrt(2*log2(data.size))

NWC = map(lambda x: pywt.thresholding.soft(x,threshold), WC)

return pywt.waverec2( NWC, wavelet)

We can now perform the same operation with different wavelets. The following script creates a `python`

dictionary that assigns, to each wavelet, the corresponding denoised version of the corrupted Lena image.

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Denoised={}

for wlt in pywt.wavelist():

Denoised[wlt] = denoise( data=image, wavelet=wlt, noiseSigma=16.0)

The four images below are the respective denoising by soft thresholding of wavelet coefficients on the same image with the same level of noise \( (\sigma = 16.0), \) for the symlet `sym15`

, the Daubechies wavelet `db6`

, the biorthogonal wavelet `bior2.8`

, and the coiflet `coif2`

. Note that, except in the case of the denoising by biorthogonal wavelet, all of the others present clear artifacts:

denoised (`sym15`) | denoised (`db6`) |

denoised (`bior2.8`) | denoised (`coif2`) |